Exploring the Interplay Between Lifestyle Factors, miRNAs, and Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other age-related disorders are projected to become more common as the world’s population ages. Over 1.5 billion people will be over 65 worldwide by 2050, according to the UN, which will contribute to a rise in diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders, and dementia, including AD. Amyloid beta (A) plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are associated with the development of amyloid beta (A) plaques, which is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While age and genetics are important, lifestyle factors including food and physical activity (PA) are becoming increasingly important in preventing AD.
It has been demonstrated that living a healthy lifestyle can cut the risk of late-onset AD by up to 60%. Middle-aged obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are two modifiable risk factors that are linked to an increased risk of AD. Certain diets have been associated with cognitive preservation and healthy aging, including the Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet. Polyphenolic chemicals and omega-3 fatty acids, which are present in these diets, appear to lower A buildup and inflammation, supporting brain health.
The World Health Organization (WHO) supports physical activity since it may be able to ward off dementia. It has been demonstrated that regular physical activity sessions with endurance and muscle-strengthening activities improve cognitive performance and lessen neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD patients.
MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that have a role in the regulation of gene expression and the development of disease. MiRNAs play a role in cognitive function, synaptic plasticity, neuroinflammation, and autophagy in AD. Blood and brain samples from AD patients showed dysregulated miRNA expression, suggesting that miRNAs are involved in the etiology of the illness.
Exploring the Link between Lifestyle Factors and miRNAs
The relationship between these lifestyle variables and miRNAs in AD is not entirely understood, despite research suggesting that diet and PA can affect miRNA expression. There aren’t many studies that look at how nutrition affects miRNA expression in AD or how exercise affects miRNA expression in AD patients and animal models. Research on exercise regimens and gender-specific impacts is generally lacking.
The importance of diet, exercise, and cognitive training in preventing AD is shown in numerous research. Despite the fact that miRNAs have been linked to AD, little study has examined how nutrition and physical activity (PA) directly affect miRNA expression. The advantages of these lifestyle factors are typically attributed in recent studies to processes like angiogenesis, cell proliferation, tumor development metastasis, and neural regeneration. The intricate link between lifestyle variables, miRNAs, and AD has to be further investigated in order to provide potential new insights into disease preventive and treatment methods.